What is Harvard Referencing? Origin & Definition
Almost in every assignment students are asked to cite references that are allocated a proper mark distribution. Not every time the paper calls out for same format, it differs with institutes, subjects and professors. Most of the university demands Harvard referencing style therefore, it is necessary to be well-versed with few commonly used formats and Harvard style rather than relying on citation generator, automated Harvard referencing generator or Harvard referencing tool which might result in improper references.
The Harvard referencing style is an author-year system applied commonly in academia. Using Harvard referencing tool involves placing the source citation immediately after quote, thereby explicitly linking to the list of references. This is termed as parenthetic referencing, and the citation is inserted in the main document (Author Year: Page number), just short forms are used. Parenthetical reference is a method of citations in which parentheses are used to make in-text citation. Harvard referencing tools are totally devoid footnotes and are broadly used since they are simple, easy to understand and straightforward.
The Harvard Reference Style is decided to name since it was first included in an article on “the embryogenesis of the garden slug” reported by the renowned Zoologist Edward Laurens Mark in the 1880s, Hersey Professor of Anatomy and Director of the Harvard’s zoological research lab till his retirement in 1921, wherein Mark comprised an author-date source in parentheses. He was later given the “author-date” system and labeled after Harvard, although it was never officially associated with that institution.
Most of the reference styles are focused on manuals written by organizations of scholars or publishing enterprises. This is not the practice with Harvard, and so as a matter of fact, there are no single but multiple versions of the Harvard referencing tool. The distinctions between the various versions are limited and relate primarily to the use of punctuation. When the standards vary slightly in the same reference style, as seems to be the scenario with Harvard, it is necessary to pay attention to coherence. This implies that, even though the use of punctuation may vary among style manuals, authors must be coherent in their writings.
What Should Be Included in Harvard Referencing Style?
Harvard Referencing is a well-recognized referencing style. Various educational institutions have their own type of Harvard Referencing Style that is based on the basic one. This style is used by the researchers to cite as well as in a bibliography. For the in-text citations the writers use the author-date method which involves the surname of the author along with the publication date of that particular article. Moreover, if a direct quote is extracted from any article or book than the page number will be added, the page number of the journal article from where the quote is taken would be written. The in-text citations are written between the text to show what the author has said about a significant concept. Examples of in-text citations in Harvard Referencing Style are:
In case of Paraphrasing: (Bonacelli, 2010)
When quoting a meaning or anything useful: (Bonacelli, 2010, p.2).
For the bibliography, the referencing style is different. The bibliography comes at the end of the document which is not included in the total word count. The Harvard Referencing is written as author name, publication date, topic of the article, what kind of the piece is referenced either a journal article or a report, name of the journal or website (in italics) and the URL if it’s an electronic article. In case of referencing a book, the edition number and name of the publication or the publisher is also written. Examples of Harvard Referencing style for bibliography are:
For a Book: Holt, D.H. 1997. Management principles and practices. Sydney: Prentice-Hall
Rules for Citing in Referencing in Harvard style
Often students use automated Harvard referencing generator or Harvard referencing tool on website to create references when they aren’t aware of the format. Though these referencing sites are easy to operate and access, but mostly create results that aren’t justified. When such sites are used for citation in higher education assignments, it results in poor grades. Why is this so? The online website often fails to incorporate every minute detail that could be done manually with ease. Knowing that this is pretty difficult in some case, the expert researcher on assignment help studio platform present a Harvard format citation guide to make student academic life easier and to help them improve their grade. As the references are allocated additional marks, it is recommended for students to make full use of this comprehensive guide to cite any source easily
Harvard Format Citation Guide
Harvard references in-text citations: The in-text references must be included next the use of a quote or paraphrase acquired from another writing piece. It is written in the main text body and is shorter than the full references. In Harvard referencing style, it contains the editors or authors surname, publication year and page number. It takes the form as:
Richard (2018, p. 200) or (Richard, 2018, p.200)
Two or three Authors:
Richard, Michelle and Marjan (2018, p. 200) or (Richard, Michelle and Marjan, 2018,p. 200)
Four or more Authors:
In this case, the first author’s surname should be written followed by ‘et al’:
Richard et al (2018, p. 200) or ( Richard et al, 2018, p, 200)
Use the organization responsible in place of author, if possible, If not, then use the title in italics.
(A short guide to referencing, 2019, pp. 200-210)
Citing Multiple Works in One Parentheses:
List the in-text citations in the usual way but use semicolons between different references:
(Richard, 2018 p. 200; Michelle, 2000; Marjan, 1990 pp. 167-196)
Citing Different Editions of the Same Work in One Parentheses:
Include the authors name only once after all the appropriate dates divided by semicolons:
Richard (2011; 2018) or (Richard, 2011; 2018)
Citing a Reference With No Date:
In this case just writer ‘no date’ in place of the year: (Richard, no date, p. 200).
Citing a Secondary Source:
In this case, write the reference you have used at first followed by ‘cited in’ and original author:
Michelle 2000 (cited in Richard, 2000, p. 200) or (Michelle, 2000, cited in Richard, 2018, p. 200)
How to cite different sources
The in-text citation almost remains the same across different source type if not mentioned explicitly. Simply assume the in-text citation uses the rule stated above.
How to cite a Book in Harvard Referencing style
- The title is italicized
- First letter is capitalized and then only proper nouns are capitalized
Authors surname (s), initial (s). (Year Published) Title. Edition. Place of publication : publisher.
- Book referencing example:
Richard, S.M. and Marjan. L (2018) A short guide to referencing.3nd edn. Australia: Australia Publishings.
How to cite a Chapter in Harvard Referencing style
For chapter citation, simply add the chapter author and chapter title to the reference. It follows as:
- Chapter citation example:
Author names. (Published year). ‘Title of Chapter’ in editors surname, initials. Title of book. Edition. Place of Publication: publisher, page numbers.
In-text citation of the chapter in edited book: Don’t use the editor, use the chapter author surname.
How to cite an e-book in Harvard Referencing style
The basic format is:
Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year Published). Title. Edition. E-book format [e-book reader]. Available at URL or DOI (Accessed: day month year)
- e-book citation example:
Richard, S.M., Marjan, L. and Canny, S.T. (2018) A short guide to referencing. E-book library [online]. Available at: https://www.mondley.com/reference-management/reference-manager (Accessed: 1 Augustt 2020)
How to cite Journal Article in Harvard Referencing style
The basic format is :
Author names. (year) ‘Title of article’, Title, volume (issues/season/etc), page numbers.
- Journal article example:
Richard S.M. ‘How citation has changed the contemporary research world’, The Mondley, 65(9), p74-85.
- Journal article online example:
Richard S.M. ‘How citation has changed the contemporary research world’, The Mondley, 65(9) [online]. Available at: https://www.mondley.com/reference-management/reference-manager (Accessed: 10 August 2020)
Well these are the few; there are various different citation rules to cite a newspaper, article, blog, TV programme and website. Our writers have strong grip on all the styles and can quickly create a proper one for you. So if you face any issue regarding references, then assignment studio is just a click away.
Why is Harvard Referencing Style Important?
Plagiarism is a serious and real accusation, that requires acknowledging others ideas and research through referencing. Not only used to avoid plagiarism, Harvard referencing style has other important roles too:
- It let you acknowledge other writers research through citation that is drawn as ideas or words in assignments.
- It allows you to give credit to authors and respect the intellectual property rights of the respected researchers.
- Referencing provides a way to support the claims and assertions in assignments.
- Successful research is appropriately addressed
- Readers get a chance to easily trace the original source if they wish to.
- It adds authenticity to your argument
- Readers are given an idea of how deep the research is conducted and the field you are operating.
- The citation marks the discipline allowing a way to selected field of study.
So before it’s too late and you run out of required marks to clear the course, hire a professional writer who knows extensive research as well as aware of various referencing style formats. Definitely we are the one reliable one that is clearly visible through our services, sample and customer reviews. Still have any queries? Contact our customer support care, available at hour of need to instantly cater your feedback and queries.