Research proposal on Housing Project Mumbai
Population is one of the critical factors of development. According to the United Nations (UN) 2015 Report there are 7.3 billion people living in the world. The increasing trend of population growth has caused many challenges for the countries like India. China (1.4 billion) and India (1.3 billion) being most populated countries representing the world population with 19 and 18 percent respectively. However the utmost importance is a need of balance between the population growth and the healthy India.
With the increase in population there is a great stress on housing. The UN habitat report indicates that by the 2030 about 40% of world population needs a proper housing and other basic necessities in the infrastructure. India as being one of the highly populated regions of the world also suffers from less housing problems. In the present study, the problem of fewer dwellings in India’s most populated city the greater Bombay will be highlighted. Bombay is in the west coast of India, comprising of seven marshy Islands. The total population according to the 2011 census is 16.4 million (Watmough et al., 2016). The total slum population statistics in 2011 census revealed that out of 40.3 million people of the country population living in slums, 2.4 million people lives in Bombay in the Maharashtra state. These people live under the poverty line with deteriorating living conditions (Panagariya and Mukim, 2014).
The present study will highlight issues that led people to live in these slums and also suggest certain mitigating strategies in order to improve the living standards of these people with proper design of these houses. The major cause of the people in slums includes rural to urban migration in search of job and the poor planning by the government, colonisium, urban poverty, segregation, social exclusion, political problems and natural disasters. The housing options for theses people in India includes, Chawls; Patra chawls, Zopadpattis (squatter housing); and pavement dwellings (Patel, d’Cruz and Burra, 2002; Panagariya and Mukim, 2014). The people living in these Chawls; Patra chawls and pavements have various health issues. Both communicable and non- communicable diseases are cause of concern while most common diseases reported are dysentery, cholera, malaria, jaundice and typhoid. Similarly, HIV infections, heart diseases and TB are also recognized as the major health concerns in these slums because of the lack of awareness of these diseases and their symptoms while analyzing late complications of these diseases (Bapat and Agarwal, 2003).
These issues can only be solved when the environmental conditions of these people are improved. In order to improve the living standard there is a need of improving the basic infrastructure of their living. The houses in which these people live need to be designed in a more comprehensive way that caters all the associated problems of health and sanitations (Malhotra, 2003). However, many policy approaches are developed in order to improve the living standards of people in slums of Bombay. Such as the slum up gradation program of the world bank, Public-Private Partnerships in the Slum Redevelopment Scheme (SRD), The Prime Minister’s Grant Project (PMGP) and so forth. Beside such high funding projects there is no incremental increase in these people’s living standards. Therefore, in the following study we incorporate certain mitigating strategies in order to rehabilitate these people and improve their pace of living standard with more appropriate method of designed houses.
Various Micro-finance based initiatives are an appropriate method for solving the problems such as Local Development Programme that will help in community infra-structure, housing loans to poor people and Self-employed Women’s Association (SEWA) interest rates for housing loans are another successful micro financing programs which has been adopted by many countries including Bangladesh. El Salvador, and Philippines (Schreiner, 2001; Malhotra, 2003). Bangladesh’s Grameen bank is one of the most popular micro financing programs initiated in 1983, the program has a more appropriate model of loan grants and the repayment system, and since its initiative the bank delivered about 600,000 loans till 2015 (Ferguson, 2003; Ferguson, and Smets, 2010).
However, there is a need of better and comprehensive plans for building dwellings for the development of these people with minimum associated cost. Around the globe different material and methodology were used in order to upgrade the slums. The Cob is an old method of construction where raw hearth is used in the construction process, the less material is also required by this method but the major concern is that this method would not be appropriate in Bombay because of the less available land in the out skirt areas of the city. The construction for the development of Bombay slums requires high quality cement and bricks that will help in building much better and sustainable buildings. These buildings need a firm base in order to cope with natural disasters.
The aims and objectives of this study is to identify
- The total population living in slums
- Their Health concerns
- Sanitation problems face by these people living in slums
- How to improve living standards
- Number of dwellings require to rehabilitate these people
- Social and political factors contributing in their development
- The Micro-financing
- Comprehensive Architectural designing
The following study helps to highlight one of the major problems associated with booming urbanization in the Bombay city. The number of slums has increased from the past decades thus this study will help in identifying factors that had led to such devastating conditions of human being living in theses slums. Following study also incorporates certain mitigating strategies in order to improve the living standard of these people living in slums. Furthermore a more comprehensive plan will help to rehabilitate these people through better designing of the houses with minimum associated cost and also catering all the problems associated with the sanitation and also incorporating other facilities for their development. Therefore this study will help in creating an adequate infrastructure for the poor people of Bombay while analyzing the associated problems.
The population of India is increasing rapidly and the rate of poverty is greater in India which is making a share of 20% among the poverty rate of world. According to the World Bank’s measurement of poverty in 2014, there are approximately 872.3 million people which are living below poverty line and out of these people 179.6 million poor people are living in India (Watmough et al., 2016). The reason of selecting Bombay as the case for current report lies in the fact that Bombay is the most populous city of the India which is comprised of 18.4 million population of India. The Bombay is the ninth largest urban agglomeration of the World, which is indicating that overall population rate of Bombay is significant. It has been estimated that on average one quarter of poor community of Bombay is earning less than US $ 0.6, which is lower than the poverty threshold mentioned by Government of India (Gupta, 2012). This increasing rate of poverty is causing issues regarding housing in Bombay which requires immediate attention and rehabilitation efforts for marginalized communities.
The urbanization challenges are significant for Bombay and being the part of a developing nation the city has huge disparity among housing of high income, middle income and low income people. There exist housing vulnerability in Bombay which can be linked with lack of quality shelter, lack of availability of individual services and un-hygienic living conditions. There exist underutilization of social services and people are living in extremely poor conditions. The housing vulnerability in Bombay is giving rise to slums which can be categorised as Chawls and pavement Dwellers (Panagariya and Mukim, 2014). The Chawls are poor tenements which are mainly comprised of one bed room, small cooking area and a common bathroom. The pavement dwellers are characterized as worse living and there are very little chances of rehabilitation of pavement dwellers (Tarozzi, 2012). The structural changes are not possible in the design of pavement dwellers and they require complete abolishment with an aim of improving the housing conditions of residents.
According to statistics, the Bombay is home of 22 million people and on average 70% of the population is living in slums (Anon, n.d). The reason behind increasing rate of slum population is based on the fact that unfavourable weather conditions, poor storage conditions and lack of enough water for growing crops has caused the people to starve for food. The migration towards slums of big cities like Bombay, offers them chance to survive. According to projections, the slums will overtake the major landscape of the city as there is unchecked migration of people to Bombay and majority of people are moving to the city in search of job. In addition to this, the obsolete housing laws and increasing prices of real estate are causing increase in slum population of Bombay. Along with this, the low income people are lacking the opportunity to access the housing loans which is forcing them to live in the slums.
The population which is living in slums is facing enormous issues related to availability of clean water for drinking, food and electricity. There are overly crowded bathrooms and open sewerage systems which are contributing to contaminate the climate. The pollutants and waste is merging with the drinking water which is giving birth to various health issues. It is evident that majority of slums are relying on community bathrooms which are being shared by number of families and it is causing diseases among the users. The slum population is comprised of about seven million children which are below the age of 14 and due to scarcity of resources to meet the requirements of their daily life, the children are facing pressure to work (Agarwal and Taneja, 2005). The children living in slums are found to get engage in unhealthy jobs such as rag picking and sewage cleaning which are substantially dangerous for their health and life. Along with this, the scarcity of resources has led the slum children far away from education as the parents are hardly fulfilling the immediate needs of their family such as food and shelter.
The problem of water is significant as the standpipes are active only for 2 hours daily and due to lack of water storage capacity it become difficult for people to meet their requirements. Due to lesser amount of water available, the sanitary conditions are poor and it is giving rise to many issues such as dirty clothes and contaminated dishes which are being used for food (Agrawal and Maiti, 2005). These unhealthy and excrement conditions are leading to increasing population of rats and bees which are not only contaminating the food but also causing various health issues.
The slums are challenged by sanitation problem and nutritional issues which are not good for health of residents of poor communities. It has been highlighted in the report that approximately 700,000 people die in India due to diarrhea. Moreover, according to the report of world health organization, about 49% of the world’s underweight children and 46% of malnourished children lives in India (Gladstone et al., 2008). Given these figures, it is evident that living conditions of people in slums are worse and their rehabilitation is the core issue which needs immediate attention. The other significant health issues include; malaria, dysentery, jaundice and typhoid.
Furthermore, the municipal efforts of collecting solid wastes are not visible in slums of Bombay (Tarozzi, 2012). The lack of waste collection has led to dumping of waste in the open, including lanes and railway tracks. The consequences are disastrous for the residents as it is causing pollution in the nearby areas and offering serious harm to people. The residents of slums have minimal awareness of the deadly effects which is being caused by inadequate dumping of the solid waste. It is evident from the mentioned issues that poor housing is giving rise to many issues associated with health and sanitary conditions and these issues are the major factors behind the consideration of improvement for the residential conditions of poor people within Bombay.
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