Case study on Hospitality Management
Efficient and effective human resource management are the lifeblood of business in the globe and this is true in manufacturing and the services sector. However, in a service sector like hotels and hospitality, the managerial training of the staff is significant, the qualifications, and the school- based learning is not necessary when it comes to the practical perspective. It is only by the means of continuous development and knowledge updating of staff, to increase the potential output from each individual. Managing a highly-skilled team of personals, from the floor mopped to the senior cooks, Chef de Partie, and chief head. Thus the only method of a successful hotel management is the focused improvement maintenance and support of all personnel with the highlighting of a good-quality as well as highly-skilled management staff, which the hotel business can arrive at its full trade and commerce prospective. The main area of “Reception”, with all of its major role of marketing and advertising for the business, and acting as the liaison of the operating hotel management, plays the vital role as the “brain” in the human body, the front office employees undertake the essential task of building up the hotel’s image, the goodwill plus the reputation of the hotel in the market and amongst its competitors. Therefore the qualification and the updating trainings are vital for the running of the business, and maintain its competitive position among its competitors. An increasing number of investigations in China and elsewhere are paying attention on the learning of the individual knowledge, abilities and skills (KSA) in the hotel’s main office (Jameson & Hargraves, 1999).
Since an extensive assortment lies with the types of processions and belongings available, that sit together with an umbrella concept of a hotel. The main office is the place for movement that vary very much from hotel to hotel, and changes according to the size, location, position availability, in addition to the target population of the hotel. In 1998, Chacko had investigated into the knowledge and skill required in the hotels and hospitality, he noted it down that there was a conflict in the hotel management’s formal qualifications, and extensive school projects to hold a good position in a hotel of the realm, although the continuous training of the employees in hotels is necessary to introduce innovative skills and methodologies to the employees such as communication via modern electronic devices. In 2003, Taylor & Davies concluded in their investigation that the most significant part of employee training and continuous updating were completely neglected by the hotel and hospitality industry entrepreneurs, and the complete emphasizes was on the school works of the employee. However the learning and working environments are unusually poles apart (Taylor & Davies, 2003). Fresh candidates require an orientation or an initial on the job training to employ their knowledge and skills. So, if an individual is not highly qualified or has no higher formal degrees he can even give the similar or even an efficient output as compared to the one holding a higher qualification degree in hand commenced an ample psychoanalysis, how the individuals build up on the job knowledge and skills. Such an endeavor is the escalating component of the economy’s hotel industry. It has been renowned that the numerous features of the employee skills in hotel management. The hotel employees need to be efficient, effective, active to attend the feasts, and in their serving to the guests, as well as they must demonstrate their elevated communiqué, maintaining the balance of emotional quotient. The hotel hierarchy and the task distribution among the employees pays a vital role in this regard, In 2005, Main proposed work plans for an employee were recommended. Moreover, it has been suggested that the employee must have a balance of their EQ, and maintain a good hotel culture, greet the customer with a smile, and response to better outcomes, thus a better relationship between the employees could be developed more over the employee turnover may be forbidden. The implementation of a psychological convention hypothesis, the psychological theory binding the contract between the employee and the management can play its significant role (Main, 1995).
Powell & Watson took a research on the requirement of Training and education for the hotel employees; they conducted a survey with 500 questionnaires and almost 50 interviews, and find out that, 15.1 percent of the hotel and hospitality employees had not gone further of the post- schooling, the 35.6 percent of the employees hold some kind of a short course or a diploma degree in hotel education or catering from the HCIMA or the National institutes, however 11.5 percent of the employees hold an accounting degree or any diploma or a certificate of accounting, the 27.3 percent of the employees did not possess any professional qualification or any certificate or any other diploma. Only a 5.8 percent of the employees were business post- graduates, and 18.7 percent had a qualification degree other than the chosen crew, out of which the 6 percent were lower hospitality and hotel qualified and 9 percent were business qualified holding various specifications (Powell & Watson, 2006).
If the research was diversified on the numerous hotels, the qualification of the hotel managers varies with their responsibilities, the managers of the five-star hotels had a hotel qualification degree, or some related to their jobs, whereas the managers of the low star hotels were lesser qualified. The study (Hill, 2002) has investigated that even in the five star hotels the 3.3 percent of the employees hold no degrees, no certificates or any of the diploma, whereas in the lower stared hotels, the four stared or the lower, the ratio was 17.9 percent of the total employees. Conversely, the organizers of the four stared hotels or the lower stared were more qualified the percentage of unqualified respondents was 10.7 percent, and the proportion of the five- storied hotels unqualified respondents was 17.9 percent. The survey of London also depicted the same proportions (Haynes & Fryer, 2000). The hotels having 40 beds or lesser showed a 23.8 of the employees who had no qualification, and the hotels having 400 or more beds, had 13.6 percent of the non educated employees. In the study it was estimated that the 5 stars had 3.3 percent of professionals, no post graduated employees, and 33.3 percent of employees which hold a hotel business degree, 16.7 percent hold the trade and commerce specialization, and 50 percent of employees who hold the hotel and catering degree. However, the 4 stars had 24.5 percent of professional degree holders, 3.3 percent post graduated employees, 7.5 percent employees who have a hotel business degree, 7.5 percent hold the trade and commerce specialization, and 32.1 percent of employees who hold the hotel and catering degree and there were 11.3 percent employees with lesser or even no qualification, in the 3 stars or less graded hotels 25 percent of employees were professional degree holder, 10.7 percent were post graduated, 50 percent of employees which hold a hotel business degree, 7.1 percent hold the trade and commerce specialization, and 28.6 percent of employees who hold the hotel and catering degree and 57.1 percent employees holding the other qualification than hotel and hospitality (Pryce, 2001). Although the formal qualifications required in the hotel management vary with the hotel type, yet trainings are more required in such a business than the formal degrees, the investigation shows, the hotels large in size, and with 300 or more employees have more staff training opportunities and thus result in better outcomes, the employment period is also associated with the level of training, hotel and the hospitality industry support specialized training programs where the employee has spent a period of 6 years or more. Although the daily meeting, the weekly aimed conversation between the employees and the orientations are a regular division of the business. Another survey showed that the female employees in the hotel and hospitality sector receive lesser or a shorter- term training than the male employees, 53.5 percent of the female and 44.7 of the male employees have shown a no training program either annually or quarterly, and even the final output after the training was 1.8 percent on average as compared to the male output by 2.1 percent (Chan & Ho, 2006).
Another aspect of the hotel and hospitality industry is the management of the front desk, because the front desk has been accountable to the customers, they must have adequate information about the hotel, and are talented in the hotel marketing and promotion. The Chinese researchers have investigated extensive information in the knowledge and skill development of the front offices of the hotel relating to the general hotel tasks. Moreover, the group has been assigned the task that front office must be smart, intelligent, friendly, and be excellent in the overseas verbal communication and phone call, contacts.
The degree of the required knowledge and skills are different as regards to the tasks assigned in the hotel, the front office tasks require a high school degree, so that the employee can proficiently perform his task, the front office has the main role in the hotel industry. It is the hub of the hotel no matter whatever is the hotel type, various investigations have identified its significance, it is the area where the guests meet and communicate, the welcome greeting activities take place, the customer gets his required information, and if he is satisfied he shall maintain a good relation within the hotel, from their arrival, payments, hotel information’s, rules and regulation of residing, ordering, billing till the departure. Thus the front office must be good in advertising of the hotel as well, the availability of complete information is must, moreover the daily assigned tasks are to be regulated on the front desk by the customer. As regards to the functional qualification requirement it has been evident that the employees need regular description of tasks, on the job trainings and somehow a level of knowledge and expertise for the task execution. The results of the investigation have verified that only a few managers in the hotel were aware of the high proficiency skills of the employees and the peers, however few of the fresh candidates, when appointed as full time employees are supervised on the work. Consequently the qualification of the staff has a minimal role as compared to the staff experience, the efficiency of performances, and the training given to the employee, to maintain his retention in the organization
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