Assignment on Immigrant Youth and the Law in Australia
The history of migration to the Australian lands goes back to 17th and 18th century. Since then millions of people from different communities had been migrated and settled in Australia, making it a multicultural society. Besides African and other immigrants on humanitarian grounds, the other category that has a prominent share in the Australian immigrants is the youth from different countries. These young immigrants face the same challenges as the African and other immigrants on humanitarian grounds. Australia’s flexible immigration laws and multiple opportunities, attracted many people from around the globe. As per some reports by 1945 around 7 million people migrated to Australia. As stated by Szczecinski (2011) that the 2006 census, for example, indicated that nearly one in every four people of the nearly 20 million people living in Australia were born overseas. Though Australians tried to maintain their own culture but due to induction of millions of immigrants from different communities of the world it formed into a new multi cultured country. Australia has since emerged as a multicultural society, largely as a result of the various waves of immigration from other European countries and, in more recent decades, the Asia-Pacific region. (Webb & Rhodes, 2004).
Australia the sixth largest country on the globe is based on a huge land area. Initially, the immigration laws of Australia were much relaxed as the skilled workers and professionals were in high demand. The last decade has seen some major, and at times controversial, developments in the Australian humanitarian migration program (Higley & Nieuwenhuysen, 2009). The Government of Australia invited skilled professionals from all over the world and also facilitated them by offering related training programs. The Education standards in Australia are very high and thus it is providing an impressive quality of education in much competitive amount as compared to other western countries. Moreover job opportunities are also comparatively higher. Commonly two classes of youth are seeking immigration in Australia; one class is for getting higher education and accomplishing their dreams of better future whereas the other class is of the youth who are exposed to extreme human rights issues in their home country, such as the African immigrants. Due to the same reasons more youths from around the globe are pouring in, seeking a better future. Accepting the multiculturism, the Government of Australia has developed different policies favoring the young immigrants.
Migration to Australia:
As stated by Galligan & Roberts (2004) that migration to Australia has always been partly managed by governments and partly spontaneous choice of people seeking betterment and advantage. The non-biased immigration policy of Australia allows any individual to apply for immigration, irrespective of their gender, religion or ethnic origin. As stated by Tamis (2005) the population and birthrate of Australia was insufficient to cover the security and economic needs of this country following the World War II. The Australian government was in view that more skilled and unskilled workers should be inducted as immigrants that could aid in the economic uplift of the country. Australian migration policy offers different categories like skilled workers, family sponsors, special eligibility or refugees, depending on the individual immigrants. Most migrants come to Australia to work, produce and fill skills shortages, visas issued to such migrants is a part of Australian macroeconomic strategy. Even the Educational Institutes have a higher number of students from different origins of the world. The pro-immigrant policies of the Australian government have given the opportunity to these students to apply for residency once they have completed their higher education, while onshore.
The acceptance of a multi-culture society is reflected in the programs that are offered by the Australian government to the new immigrants. Once applied for the Australian immigration, an individual has an option of multiple programs that he can opt for a better living in a new land. The Australians are concerned with transforming foreign residents into citizens and so the assistance afforded is more varied and not restricted to language and vocational skills (Lynch & Simon, 2003). According to the figures mentioned in by the Australian Government that since the establishment of Department of Immigration and Citizenship in 1945 it has benefitted around 7 million immigrants.
Australia has a high level of immigration, with 24.6% of the population of nearly 20 million not born in the country (Berry et al, 2006). The young immigrants in Australia hold a prominent share in the total population of the country. As revealed in the 2006 Australian census that out of the total population of 20 million around 14% were young people between the ages of 15 – 24. These youths enter Australia through different means, some arrived for higher education, some accompanied their parents and some entered on humanitarian grounds. These young arrivals in Australia carry along with them new dreams and goals to achieve. At the same time they foresight many problems in fulfilling their dreams.
It has been very fortunate on the part of these young immigrants that realizing the importance of these youths, Australian government offers many programs that will pave the way in making these young immigrants a beneficial citizen in the future. There are many visa options available for the youths seeking their career in Australia. Youths entering Australia are not pretty much sure of the challenges they might face in a new territory, but as per Australian government’s policy, different programs depending on the type of visa are offered for the ease and support of the applicants.
Penetrating into new mode of living:
As stated by Rasmussen (1993) that the new land is encountered and analyzed, both physically psychologically, on the immigrant journey and during the early years of adjustment. Main factors such as housing, employment and finance are to be considered while practically opting for a new style of living or moving into a new society that is different by all means like culture, language and law. Adjusting into an entirely new land is also influenced by the social and family values.
Getting accustomed with the new culture, can be made easier if prompt services are made available, that will support the new arrivals to modify themselves into a new life style. Moreover a platform has to be provided for the young immigrants for the social participation.
There are number of problems that young immigrants might face in the new land, language problems, friends already based in Australia not able to support, lonesome and housing. Acceptance of multiculturalism and bestowing equal legal rights to the young immigrants has provided solutions to many of the issues.
The young immigrants once they have landed on the Australian lands, are offered assistance in administration procedures, finance and language issues. The government has formulated many policies aiming to support the young new comers.
Assisting the Young Immigrants:
Where advances in productivity are contingent upon technological advances, as is usually the case, there is an argument that young workers are beneficial because, in each generation of new technology, they are the assimilators of the new knowledge (Markus, Jupp & McDonald. 2009). Young immigrants are more energetic, flexible, creative and perceptive. These young immigrants can be made more productive by providing them prompt assistance where they lack. Initial months after landing on a new land are considered to be more challenging, adjusting with a new culture, language and laws needs time, whereas without proper knowledge it may produce a negative impact on both the individual immigrant and the new land.
A culture that reflects equal opportunities for all and social bonding among the people, is considered to be a prosperous and economically healthy. Persons arriving in Australia for permanent settlement are entitled to all of the social welfare benefits available to citizens (Lynch & Simon, 2003). In the multi-culture society of Australia every individual irrespective of his gender, religion or cultural background enjoys the equal rights and opportunities.
In contrast to many other states on the globe, Australian immigration laws are more flexible. Particularly in the case of young immigrants. The pro-immigrant policies of the Australian government has encouraged many youths from around the globe to opt for the Australia. Young people can produce far better results than the older ones, following the same concept; there is a list of immigrant’s assistance programs offered, making the new arrivals more comfortable and secure.
Main concerns for the new arrivals are the language, accommodation and employment. Settlement Grants Program launched by the immigration and citizenship department has provided solution for such issues by providing information on education, employment and their responsibilities under the Australian law. The same law permits private firms to act as an agent on behalf of the young immigrants. the role of these private agents is to assist their clients in all legal matters, personal issues like accommodation, employment, education and language.
As stated by Jupp (2002), that a research showed the impact of unemployment to be closely related to non-English-speaking background, especially for the Young. Language difference is considered as the main barrier in getting acquaintance with the new culture. Special language classes on government and private levels are conducted for the immigrant youth. Moreover counseling sessions are held to familiarize the young immigrants with the new law system and their responsibilities. No sooner an immigrant becomes officially tax payer, he comes under the same law federal and state, as that of other citizens. He can access all services government or private and would be penalized like any other citizen in ergo of any unlawful act.
Australia stands to be a unique state, as it was not inherited but was built by the native Australians. The resource rich Australian continent attracted huge number of individuals. These individuals entered Australia seeking better future for them, while on the other hand their contribution aided in the growth of the country. After the IInd world war, Australia was facing shortage of manpower; the situation compelled the government to re-consider its immigration policies to induct more immigrants for the support of its economic growth.
For some nations, like the United States, Canada and Australia, the influx of trained, ambitious, young immigrants was a clear economic boon (Cypher & Dietz, 1997). Though different classes of immigrants are arriving in Australia, but the government is more inclined towards young immigrants. Amendments are made in the immigration policies for the young people, different programs are offered to support the young immigrants, as the Australian government is of the view that these young immigrants if promptly counseled will be an advantage in raising the economy levels of the country.
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