Project Sustainability Management
The proposed Faculty of Engineering and Surveying laboratory building at Springfield is designed to cover the requirements for the practice courses in the Bachelor of Engineering (Civil), which will be offered at the campus from 2013.
The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) spreadsheet for the distribution transformer rulemaking compares the life-cycle costs for the baseline unit with more efficient units. The LCC spreadsheet will be used by the Department in determining the effects of standard levels on changes in operating expenses (usually decreased) and changes in purchase prices (usually increased).
The laboratory building consists of a purpose built laboratory area, using modern portable equipment, 16.8 metres by 12 metres in area, along with a technician’s office, break-out room, postgraduate area and offices, which is 16.8 metres by 7.5 metres. The laboratory area would expect to have dust extraction and noise suppression equipment to minimise the impact on the environment. The office area would be expected to be air conditioned. As much as possible, natural ventilation and heating, along with on-site water storage, would be used.
Life cycle management would take into account the construction, fit-out, operation and eventual disposal of the building, which would have an estimated life of 15 years.
Building constructed along traditional lines, with minimal insulation, but with workplace health and safety considerations such as dust extraction.
Building constructed along traditional lines as above, but for maximum student comfort (for example, air conditioning of laboratory and office areas).
Insulated building that would aim at reasonable student comfort, but with natural ventilation of the laboratory section and air conditioning of the office area.
Building constructed to green star constraints, including insulation, use of recycled and natural materials where possible, natural ventilation and heating throughout, trigeneration, and other life cycle sustainability measures.
The engineering department at USQ must evaluate the economic impact of any potential energy efficiency standard, that is one of the requirements by law. The main effects of energy efficiency standards include changes in operating expenses of the laboratory(usually decreased over time) and changes in purchase price (that usually increased over time). In conducting its rulemaking, the engineering department will analyze the net effect of costs over the laboratory service life. The LCC includes the installed cost (purchase price plus installation cost), operating expenses (energy and maintenance costs), lifetime of the product, and a discount rate.
The basic foundation of the LCC methodology is the life-cycle cost equation, that mainly reflecting both the first costs of an item and the present value of the operating costs over the lifetime of the laboratory and its equipments:
The initial installed costs of the laboratory equipments include the purchase price and installation cost of the various equipments (Barnes, P.R., S. Das, 1997), while operating costs include the value of the losses and maintenance costs on the yearly basis.
While the overall LCC equation is simple, the LCC analysis for distribution transformers needs to account for a number of complex factors:
The engineering department will yield a cost-efficiency relationship in the form of selling prices, no-load losses, and load losses for a wide range of realistic laboratory design
Engineering Department Analysis
The database of laboratory design provides the LCC model with a distribution of transformer design choices.
During the laboratory designing phase, the project team has to identify which general objectives and other technical strategies are to be incorporated into the project Specific Requirements (SR). The overall design plan should and must be updated in order to reflect iterative changes during design and enable measurement of overall project achievements. Other departments should and must be informed and integrated with its site features and climatic conditions.
The economic value of energy losses in the process of running the machines in the laboratory with respect to energy costs
The energy loads will be estimated on the hourly basis using a statistical load simulation model. The statistical load simulation model takes several inputs and performs a statistical simulation for an hourly load sample, which will then be further evaluated.
The hourly load simulation will be performed by a data processing program that generates inputs for the LCC spreadsheet. From the rated size of the energy transformer, the annual peak load is estimated from a distribution of peak loads that will range from 20% to 160% of rated load with a mean of 65% of the rated peak load of the energy transformer. A scaling relationship between peak load and load factor for the laboratory will be derived from available hourly load monitoring data.
The cost for installing various equipments in the laboratory
The installation costs elements are:
The single phase pre-fabricated stress cones at pole and transformer.
Various cables to cut from one end to another.
Tables and machineries
Ground rod with grounding conductor run to transformer and other machineries
Ventilation system for the whole laboratory
Air condition for the students
Two distribution grade lightning arrester installed and connected to transformer and grounding conductor
Transportation to job site
Crane operation to lift heavy equipments
Bucket truck operation to install equipments
Connect, measure insulation resistance, energize, set taps, verify secondary voltage.
The overall cost of installation are not expected to vary between baseline units and more efficient units
Once the site of the building is finalized, the initiator of the prime project has to calculate exactly which measures will bring which financial gains. In order to be able to estimate the costs of the investment and calculate the actual returns, a very detailed analysis of the measures has to be conducted. Either that is to be done by the initiator of the PRIME project will be able to provide the expertise in making such calculations or contract an expert who will than conduct the study.