The proposed Faculty of Engineering and Surveying laboratory building at Springfield is designed to cover the requirements for the practice courses in the Bachelor of Engineering (Civil), which will be offered at the campus from 2013.
The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) spreadsheet for the distribution transformer rulemaking compares the life-cycle costs for the baseline unit with more efficient units. The LCC spreadsheet will be used by the Department in determining the effects of standard levels on changes in operating expenses (usually decreased) and changes in purchase prices (usually increased).
The laboratory building consists of a purpose built laboratory area, using modern portable equipment, 16.8 metres by 12 metres in area, along with a technician’s office, break-out room, postgraduate area and offices, which is 16.8 metres by 7.5 metres. The laboratory area would expect to have dust extraction and noise suppression equipment to minimise the impact on the environment. The office area would be expected to be air conditioned. As much as possible, natural ventilation and heating, along with on-site water storage, would be used.
Life cycle management would take into account the construction, fit-out, operation and eventual disposal of the building, which would have an estimated life of 15 years.
Building constructed along traditional lines, with minimal insulation, but with workplace health and safety considerations such as dust extraction.
Building constructed along traditional lines as above, but for maximum student comfort (for example, air conditioning of laboratory and office areas).
Insulated building that would aim at reasonable student comfort, but with natural ventilation of the laboratory section and air conditioning of the office area.
Building constructed to green star constraints, including insulation, use of recycled and natural materials where possible, natural ventilation and heating throughout, trigeneration, and other life cycle sustainability measures.
The engineering department at USQ must evaluate the economic impact of any potential energy efficiency standard, that is one of the requirements by law. The main effects of energy efficiency standards include changes in operating expenses of the laboratory(usually decreased over time) and changes in purchase price (that usually increased over time). In conducting its rulemaking, the engineering department will analyze the net effect of costs over the laboratory service life. The LCC includes the installed cost (purchase price plus installation cost), operating expenses (energy and maintenance costs), lifetime of the product, and a discount rate.
The basic foundation of the LCC methodology is the life-cycle cost equation, that mainly reflecting both the first costs of an item and the present value of the operating costs over the lifetime of the laboratory and its equipments:
The initial installed costs of the laboratory equipments include the purchase price and installation cost of the various equipments (Barnes, P.R., S. Das, 1997), while operating costs include the value of the losses and maintenance costs on the yearly basis.
While the overall LCC equation is simple, the LCC analysis for distribution transformers needs to account for a number of complex factors:
The engineering department will yield a cost-efficiency relationship in the form of selling prices, no-load losses, and load losses for a wide range of realistic laboratory design
Engineering Department Analysis
The database of laboratory design provides the LCC model with a distribution of transformer design choices.
During the laboratory designing phase, the project team has to identify which general objectives and other technical strategies are to be incorporated into the project Specific Requirements (SR). The overall design plan should and must be updated in order to reflect iterative changes during design and enable measurement of overall project achievements. Other departments should and must be informed and integrated with its site features and climatic conditions.
The economic value of energy losses in the process of running the machines in the laboratory with respect to energy costs
The energy loads will be estimated on the hourly basis using a statistical load simulation model. The statistical load simulation model takes several inputs and performs a statistical simulation for an hourly load sample, which will then be further evaluated.
The hourly load simulation will be performed by a data processing program that generates inputs for the LCC spreadsheet. From the rated size of the energy transformer, the annual peak load is estimated from a distribution of peak loads that will range from 20% to 160% of rated load with a mean of 65% of the rated peak load of the energy transformer. A scaling relationship between peak load and load factor for the laboratory will be derived from available hourly load monitoring data.
The cost for installing various equipments in the laboratory
The installation costs elements are:
The single phase pre-fabricated stress cones at pole and transformer.
Various cables to cut from one end to another.
Tables and machineries
Ground rod with grounding conductor run to transformer and other machineries
Ventilation system for the whole laboratory
Air condition for the students
Two distribution grade lightning arrester installed and connected to transformer and grounding conductor
Transportation to job site
Crane operation to lift heavy equipments
Bucket truck operation to install equipments
Connect, measure insulation resistance, energize, set taps, verify secondary voltage.
The overall cost of installation are not expected to vary between baseline units and more efficient units
Once the site of the building is finalized, the initiator of the prime project has to calculate exactly which measures will bring which financial gains. In order to be able to estimate the costs of the investment and calculate the actual returns, a very detailed analysis of the measures has to be conducted. Either that is to be done by the initiator of the PRIME project will be able to provide the expertise in making such calculations or contract an expert who will than conduct the study.
The success of engineering laboratory project has been directly attributed to the initial planning stages of the project. The Project Managers involved in this project, will enter into it at various stages of project maturity. With the help of the sustainment Model it will bridge the entry gap and provide the manager and people involved in the project an initial starting point.
Like many new and innovative approaches, an understanding of the sustainment concept, its origin and model development will facilitate the Project Manager’s implementation of the concept (Taylor, Z. T. and R. G. Pratt, 1989).
It is very important that the laboratory should be designed in such a way that it would prevent non-point source pollution, which can be achievable through planting watershed buffers. Another option would be to harvest rainwater and storm water for irrigation and other uses on site.
Sustainment of engineering laboratory project is defined as the complete life cycle of the project that will be based on three phases of sustainment:
The Set-Up Phase
The Acquisition Phase
Finally the Operation Support Phase
All the above mentioned phases need to be briefly evaluated on the regular basis in order to know the sustainment of the project (Barnes, P.R., S. Das, 1997). Sustainment accounts for the development and costing of all required items necessary for the project success. This includes but not limited to the identification and development of all documentation, creation of the acquisition process, the leveraging of all items to achieve a successful project. With the help of sustainment model it will provide the manager the ability to step into any phase of a Sustainment based project, review where the project is, how successful it has been in achieving proposed goals, and provide insight into leveraging the Setup and Acquisition phase decisions necessary to support Operation Support needs.
The engineering department assumes that the cost for general maintenance of the laboratory will not change with increased efficiency (Stephen P. Green). Maintenance of the laboratory will consists of brief annual checks for dust buildup, vermin infestation, and accident or lightning damage.
The overall markup and installation costs of the laboratory equipments are the costs associated with bringing machineries into service as an installed piece of electrical equipment. The manufacturing costs of few equipments are subjected to four price markups:
Contractor markup: The contractor then applies a markup on the distributor price to cover overhead and profit on both labor and materials, and adds an installation cost, that will later be bear by the university.
The following have been considered in the analysis:
Design and construction time: 1 year
Operating life cycle: 15 years
Cost of construction:
Cost of disposal:
Operating costs per year:
Each of the scenarios has been analysed using a life cycle costing spreadsheet, as attached, with a range of discount rates of 6%, 9% and 12 % per annum and an operating life cycle of 15 years. Zero inflation has been assumed.
It is concluded that Option x is the most economical over the life cycle. However, Option y is the most sustainable.
The reasons are:
It is recommended that Option xxxx be selected for the following reasons:
Barnes, P.R., S. Das, B. W. McConnell, and J. W. Van Dyke, 1997 ‘Supplement to the”Determination Analysis” and Analysis of the NEMA Efficiency Standard forDistribution Transformers,
Taylor, Z. T. and R. G. Pratt, Description of Electric Energy Use in Commercial Buildings in the Pacific Northwest, 1989, Bonneville Power Administration. Portland, OR. Report No.DOE/BP-13795-22.
Energy Saving In Industrial Distribution Transformers- May 2002 Authors: W.T.J.
Hulshorst, J.F. Groeman- Kema-Netherlands Ashkin, Stephen P. Green & Clean: The Designer’s Impact on Housekeeping and Maintenance, Rochester
Public Technology, Inc., US Green Building Council, US Department of Energy, Sustainable Building Technical Manual, Part VI. For ordering information: http://www.usgbc.org/resource/index.htm