Human rights are the rights that a person can demand through justice, impartiality and fair play as a human being on the universal and legal grounds (Philip 2005, pp.755-829). The human rights are the rights of a human being that are equally available to him or her at any time within the boundary he or she lives. Every country has the right to develop itself human rights on the constitution made by the authorities but constitution should not avoid the fundamental requirements and needs of the people at any cost (Ian 2003). Modern and popular philosophers don not neglect and develop different political and legal rights for any person; they focus and deeply suggest that human rights should always be same for every single individual of the country (Charles 2009).
Human rights do not hold any type of biasness and partiality but the situations always vary for every individual on the basis of his/her past and current character as a responsible citizen. For example, if any person is involved in any criminal activity and demand justice and equal facilities as others normal citizens have then it is not possible. In case of different crimes, both persons cannot be penalized in the same way. On the hand, if some people have committed same types of crimes then there is a possibility of same penalty and punishment to these people. In reality, it is very difficult to implement human rights policies and laws in a country and satisfy and provide all types of facilities. The development of human rights and policies cannot be done without considering and covering international and global regulation related to fundamental rights within any country (Michael 2001).
Republic of Indonesia is one of the advance and modern countries of the world. This country is better associated with international and global institutes. There are different levels of authorities who define, implement and evaluate human rights policies such as government, non-government public authorities, and human rights defenders. There are several major issues revolving around Republic of Indonesia pertinent to human rights. Although, there are apparent violations and issues of human rights in Republic of Indonesia because every individual cannot be satisfied with human rights policies of the country.
Some groups, minorities and states are creating issues in Republic of Indonesia on the grounds of human rights violations. Some major issues raised in Republic of Indonesia are legal rights, religious rights of minorities, ethical rights, civil and off course political rights. There are some human rights and policies such as right to speak, freedom, live and works have also been violated, reported and observed in Republic of Indonesia (World Report 2012).
One of the major human rights issues is religious rights. There are several types of human rights violations that have been reported by Pillay but violation of minorities’ rights violations top the list. Shia Community is deprived in certain areas such as Sampang, East Java. This community is continuously accused of certain charges such as freedom of expression in local courts. The major example of the religious discrimination is the arrest of Shia leader Tajul Muluk for Blasphemy. According to Blasphemy law 1965 in which there is a clear discrimination of religious minority’s laws but government of Republic of Indonesia claims that this law is according to the constitution. By looking at the statement of government, there is also a possibility that there should be proper changes in constitution related to this law. Moreover, on the basis of constitution, the universal rights of a certain community cannot be violated. United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) also recommends some changes in the religious minority’s freedom laws but Government of Republic of Indonesia rejects the same recommendations (Ririhena, 2012).