Course work on Anthropology for Everyday Life
In everyday life, people engage in and are shaped by their social relationships. Using analytic concepts and ethnographic material from at least two course topics identify ways in which social relationships are created, sustained, transformed and/or ended.
Social relationships are very important for grooming and professional success of an individual. There are many interdependent features which can determine the fate of a social relationship.
Trust: It is the base of every successful relationship. People who are in a trustworthy association seek advice from each other and let each other do their works interchangeably without any supervision.
Diversity: Diversity is known as the various ways in which people look at the world. Whether it comes from differences in age, race, sex, education or knowledge, some variety of thinking will be present in all settings. Flourishing practices do not only bear diversity of thoughts but support it.
Mindfulness: In mindful affairs, people discuss fresh ideas. A mindful thought refrains from operating on autopilot, encourages every person to convey their thoughts without the fear of mockery, disapproval or punishment, and search for ways to continuously learn and get better (Tallia A).
Respect: Respectful relations are caring, sincere and tactful. People who respect each other, worth others’ opinions and gladly change their minds in response to what others say enjoy successful relationships. Respect is particularly significant in challenging circumstances, as it can assist individuals to focus on problem solving.
Gift Giving: According to Caplow, presenting gift to others is a nice way to please them. By regular exchange of gifts, a warm and healthy social relation can be made (Caplow T 1982)
Effective Communication: Communication between people can be regarded as excellent or lean. Excellent channels, such as face-to-face communication or telephone talks, are favored for messages with potentially blurred meanings or emotional things. Lean ways, such as e-mails or memos, are favored for more casual content. In successful relationships, people understand that both excellent and lean communication channels are essential, and they know the correct use of these channels.
Following the above mentioned features are very important for a sustained and long term relationship. Failing to comply with these characters can result in the transformation of a relation into hatred or enmity (Tallia A)
Rules and boundaries are present in all aspects of our social lives and relationships. Using examples from at least two different topics and themes that have been introduced during the course, discuss some of the ways in which these rules and boundaries are expressed, utilised and negotiated in our everyday lives. Pay attention to the fact that social boundaries are usually not marked by fences and that social rules are often unwritten or even unspoken.
Social boundaries are an objectified type of social diversity characterized in uneven access to and uneven sharing of assets (material and nonmaterial) and societal opportunities. They are also exposed in steady behavioral patterns of relation, as presented in connubiality and commensality. Only when symbolic limits are broadly agreed upon can they take on a constraining nature and outline social interaction in significant ways. Furthermore, only then can they turn out to be social borders, i.e., interpret, for example, into certain patterns of social barring or class and ethnic separation (Logan JR, 1996). However, symbolic and societal borders must be taken as equally real: The former is present at the interpersonal level, while the latter is evident at a group level. At the fundamental level, symbolic borders can be consideration of as an essential but inadequate condition for the existence of social barriers (Lamont M, 1992).
In the previous twenty years, American and British societal psychologists are researching on group classification and recognition of difference between “us” and “them.” Particularly, focusing implicitly on symbolic borders, social uniqueness theory says that “Pressures to assess ones’ own grouping positively through in-group/out-group contrast lead social groups to try to distinguish themselves from one another” (Tajfel H, 1985).
Tajfel suggested that schools assess all kids on the basis of their cultural assets—their awareness with the culture of the leading class—and thus punishing lower-class kids. Having a wide-ranging vocabulary, widespread cultural resources and command of high culture are appreciated by the school system, students belonging to the superior social backgrounds obtain this class capital in their home environment. Therefore, inferior class kids are more strenuously accepted by the educational system. They are not alert of it, as they stay under the magic charm of the culture of the superior class. They make themselves guilty for their letdown, which leads them to go down or to sort themselves into lower status educational paths. Therefore, direct elimination, over selection, self-exclusion, and inferior level tracking are vital mechanisms in the reproduction of disparity and social barriers.
Within a total institution such as a prison or the military outline how individuals negotiate their own position. Ensure that you draw on several anthropological concepts we have discussed in lectures, tutorials and readings (e.g. schismogenesis, resistance, presentation of the self, the creation and maintenance of boundaries).
The U.S. armed forces now trains women fighting pilots (and even closeted homosexuals), but two armed forces colleges are in court to guard their right as state institutions to admit merely heterosexual men. Abigail E conducted a research to examine the resistance to register women at one of these colleges, which he refers to as ‘South East Military Institute’ (SEMI), by accessing the institution’s rituals, known as the ‘Ratline’ and ‘Break Out’. SEMI is among the few state-supported men’s colleges in the United States, which are Southern ‘military’ schools, although not official U.S. armed service academies.
At SEMI, a man does not so much as lay a finger on a lady’, states the Rat Bible. Instead, SEMI’s breeding is monosexual, establishing a patrilineal descent kin line by means of an inversion of childbirth, in which the fetus and the father is in charge of the generating body. Women are nonessential to SEMI and have no motherly rights, though they are essential to set up the cadets’ heterosexuality. In Ring Figure, the official dance when the juniors obtain their class rings, the cadets and their dates (no one attends ‘stag’, alone) make the ‘figure’ of their class year on the dance floor. Abigail E suggest that the clash is not over keeping women out of men’s domains; there is a ‘woman’ (in reality many) in SEMI’s body/group (cf. Martin, 1987) and rituals. SEMI has created a unilateral descent system of untrue kin by means of its association with the state. But now, SEMI’s men are combating for their reproductive human rights and family wellbeing, even after being refused by the Supreme Court in 1993 (Abigail E 1993).
A valuable representation of schismogenesis may be an obstinately functioning governor, creating ferocious circles. As small disagreements are permitted to produce larger disagreements, the schism between the opponent’s increases cumulatively. But, it is significant to keep in mind that Bateson, in spite of his instructive use of simple mechanistic models, forced upon the dissimilarity between ‘communication’ in the engineering logic, where there is no room for connotation and uncertainty, and the messages people send to each other (Hanries-Jones, A Recursive Vision: Ecological Understanding and Gregory Bateson. , 1995)
Bateson’s concept of schismogenetic communication is postulated in broad terms, and he applies it to processes that happen in the living systems of very diverse types and levels: biological development and genetics as well as to intrapersonal (psychiatric), lntragroup and intergroup fights, examples ranging from orgasm to military fights. Bateson differentiated between ‘a) symmetrical schismogenesis, where the jointly promoting dealings of A and B were basically similar, e.g. in cases of contest, competition; and b) complementary schismogenesis, where the jointly taken proceedings are basically unlike but jointly suitable, e.g. in cases of dominance-submission (1949:82).
The schismogenetic qualities of the predator clash are simple to recognize: Inflexible show of pledge renders success in the competition for leadership in both camps, and the extreme speech and other acts generated by this rivalry offer both parties, jointly, with the essential pretexts for their mode of expression. As we have observed, the motives of the participants in the same front organization may differ. Mrs. A. fights in opposition to closing down the neighborhood school, where her kids can go to the school without crossing any roads. She is supported by Mr. B, who bas no kids to be anxious about, but who desires to tell people that B is in support of maintaining small school districts (Brox, 1992).
Analyse a public event. Use concepts introduced during the course from at least two topics to describe and explain what happens between the people involved with this event.
Christmas is a chief event of American culture that involves almost the whole population. It accounts for a substantial part of all customers spending, and engages a huge amount of human effort.
Middletown citizens are likely to give a Christmas gift each season to their parents, grandparents, soul mates, kids, grandchildren, and to all siblings and siblings’ spouses, with whom they have a constant face-to-face connection. This anticipation is not a subject of legal or spiritual sanction, but it is so persuasive that we were not able to discover any breaches that were not accounted for by extraordinary conditions.
Middletown people take care of their spouses’ family like their own family by presenting them Christmas gifts. Not doing so suggests that the couple is separated.
Majority of Middletown’s gift sharing occurs between close relatives. We know from other facts (Caplow, 1982) that for the majority of the modern-day Middletown people, as for numerous other Americans (Uzoka, 1979), kin relations are more significant than relations with friends, neighbors and colleagues.
Draw on concepts and ideas relating to two or more course topics to analyse the situation of migrants or a minority group in Australia or overseas.
Employment history statistics evidently establish that fresh arrivals are predominantly susceptible during the early settlement period in Australia. Those who are not good in speaking English at all have a 70 percent joblessness ratio in their first year. But, indications are that migrants do become accustomed to Australia and that, with the passage of time, their jobs rates fall to ratio similar with those born in Australia (Ackland, 1992).
The forecast seems to be even good for the kids of refugees and migrants. A research on second-generation Australians suggests that they have gained educational qualifications well past their parents’ generation, as well as third or prior generation Australians of the similar age group. They also contain an “outstanding degree of uphill mobility” and manage to change their tertiary education to professions commensurate with the education (Khoo, 1995).
The selection of the son of one of the Vietnamese “boat people” as “Youthful Australian of the Year” is emblematic of this positive outlook. Though these trends are cheering, the pathway to flourishing settlement in this extremely cultured, scientifically driven civilization will nonetheless be long and sore for the learners.
There is a lot of social remuneration to improving contribution of all members of the society in lifetime learning. Involvement in education changes people’s lives and improves their life chances, enabling them to increase to their full talent, get protection for themselves and their kins, and participate efficiently to their communities. Australia has had a long and supercilious tradition of opening its doors to persons and families who have been vectored by conflict and other distressing circumstances. It is striving to respect this promise by making sure that the settlement plan opens up to them the chances that come with having the skills and self-assurance to be trained in new ways and to carry on learning all through their lives.
Discuss events that could be analysed as everyday resistance. Draw on Scott to outline why the event can be understood as everyday resistance.
Abu-Lughod has described resistance as the sexually segregated women’s world, where women daily endorse all sorts of small deviances of the limitations imposed by elder men in the society. Women employ silences and secrets to their benefit. They frequently conspire to hide facts from men; they cover up one another in small matters, like hidden visits to healers or visits to associates and family; they smoke in privacy and hastily put out their cigarettes when kids come running to notify them that men are coming. An other prevalent form of resistance is Bedouin girls’ and women’s resistance to engage in matrimonial relationships. In fact, one of the key powers families, and particularly elder male family members like fathers and fatherly uncles, wield is control over the agreement of marriages. In spite of their obvious power, real marriage arrangements are always complex and involve many people, particularly mothers and female family members. Mothers from time to time effectively cancel marriages their daughters do not desire, even though fathers or other male family members are supposed to have control (Lila abu-lughod 1990).
Resistance is a delicate type of contesting ‘public transcripts’ by making use of set roles and language to oppose the cruelty of power – comprises of things like ‘chitchat, rumor, disguises, folktales, linguistic tricks, ritual gestures, descriptions, euphemisms, anonymity’. These methods are predominantly useful in situations where aggression is used to uphold the status quo, permitting ‘a veiled discourse of self-respect and self-assertion within the public transcription in which ideological resistance is masked, subdued and veiled for safety’s sake’. These types of resistances need little harmonization or arrangement, and are used by both persons and groups to resist without directly confronting or challenging privileged people (Scott, 1985).
Scott’s study finds that explicit peasant rebellions are in fact rather unusual, do not happen when and where anticipated, and frequently do not have much impact. Rather than considering ‘resistance as organization’, Scott looks at less noticeable, every-day forms of resistance such as ‘foot-dragging, avoidance, false conformity, stealing, contrived ignorance, malign and sabotage’. He finds these in countryside and factory settings, and also amongst the middle class and elites, but mainly among countryside people who are physically dispersed and less politically structured than city people (Scott, 1985).
Abigail E.Adams.(1993).dyke to dyke. Ritual reproduction at a U.S. men’s military college. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland
Ackland, R. &. (1992). Immigrants and the Australian Labor Market: the Experience of Three Recessions. . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service (AGPS).
Brox, O. (1992). Saying Things with Deeds. Zeitschnfifur Soziologie.
Caplow, T. H. (1982). Middletown Families: Fifty Years of Change and Continuity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Hanries-Jones, P. A Recursive Vision: Ecological Understanding and Gregory Bateson. Toronto: University ofToronto Press.
Hanries-Jones, P. (1995). A Recursive Vision: Ecological Understanding and Gregory Bateson. . Toronto: University ofToronto Press.
Khoo, S. (1995). The Second Generation in Australia. Australia: BIMPR Bulletin.
Lamont M, F. M. (1992). Cultivating Differences: Symbolic Boundaries and the Making of Inequality. Chicago: Chicago Press.
Lila Abu-Lughod.(1990). The romance of resistance: tracing transformations of power through Bedouin women. Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the American Anthropological Association.
Logan JR, A. R. (1996). Immigrant access to white suburbs: a multiregion comparison. . Soc. Forces , 851–81.
Scott, J. C. (1985). Weapons of the weak: everyday forms of resistance. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Tajfel H, T. J. (1985). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In Psychology of Intergroup Relations, ed. S Worchel, WG Austin. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Tallia A, L. H. Characteristics of Successful Work Relationships. American academy of family physicians.
Uzoka, F. A. (1979). “The myth of the nuclear family: historical background and clinical implications. American Psychologist , 1095-1106.