This is the final combination of six reports comprising the research and development done by six members of our group. All of we have divided each segment of the strategic plan as how universities will assess about the up-to-date and relevant course that are according to the new technologies launched in the business and market world. I am presenting the names of participants that play major role in comprising this concise report:
-Turki- Information Age
– Zhinan Guo – The three Era Model
– Damien- Leavitt Diamond
– Junyong Wu- Strategic IS for leader report
-Ahmed- Michael Porter Strategy
-Lu Ang- Strategic Paradox
I have written the name as the strategy develops from 1st stage to the completion level. This report is about the different strategies present in the field and is helpful for the universities to plan strategically to provide relevant and up-to-date ICT courses. Here all the strategies are presented sequentially. It is recommended here to utilize the little or specific portion related to your planning in your strategy. It means you have to consider are the minor and major details of your business plan, in this case university strategic plan for introducing the relevant ICT course to increase their growth. You have to come up with you own unique strategic plan that is according to your requirements and ensures future success. Information Technology is relatively new subject and in the near past, the information technology was only considered the part of machinery to increase the speed of project and the quality presentation of documents and business record. With the perceived success of ICT in the business supporting model it is thought to introduce the ICT as special courses to teach and learn the skills and applications in the practical world.
It is also known as Computer/Digital Age and is characterized with PC and laptop computers, networking, internet, and progression. In the present era, Information technology has intruded nearly every field and especially built relation to economics. It has greater impact on worker’s output by providing them more opportunities of job than ever. The nature of system has become automated that has increased the production level and reduce the numbers of physical workers. This age has transformed the business industry into information intensive style that requires less workers and controlled capital investment.
IT Strategy and Business Value
It is seen that IT has modified its role from the back stage to the front line especially in the business strategy (Henderson 1998). It is said that the ideal complement of business strategy with the IT strategy will come up with success-oriented plan. However, IT is still facing poor attention from business bodies as an important part of strategic plan (Frohman 1982 and McKeen 1996). IT is not playing a supportive role rather it is the base of many businesses especially e-Commerce and wireless business. We know that IT has become crucial part of business success stories, so it is important to look at the different aspects of the strategic utilization of IT. Here is a brief evolution of IT strategy in development process.
With the changing technology, the business environment and infrastructure is also modified to introduce relevant tools and equipment in the offices. Therefore, ICT courses must be market driven, so that many students would consider it as their priority to take admission in this university. These courses must be intended to illustrate the uses in business.
IT Strategy and Development Process
Strategic plan useful for one business cannot take as hard & fast rule could be applicable to any business. Every business has different infrastructure, information system, and nature, so the strategies vary. However, some points are devised by focus groups to identify alternate practices that are helpful in making a new strategy as rolling planning, budget cycle, fund buckets, IT expert cum business manager, and priority rubric. Still, IT has to face a challenging position regarding its importance and effectiveness in the business success.
Managing IT Perceptions
Since long, IT is facing problem to remove the negative perceptions associated with it (McKeen and Smith 1996). There is need to understand the perception of business leaders to remove obscurities and misconceptions. The most important function is to understand the role of IT at different levels of business and what kind of relationship business-IT has. Several indicators are there that effect the business and known as sub functions of IT, The business demands and supply, that may help to find the levels in corporate hierarchy. A big concern is that expectation level of the customer and employees vary with the changing technology. Recent age is the Information Age as market and businesses are using technologies to increase their production level. This has reduced the need for large labor and only requires skilled workforce that could better understand the current scenario and can operate the modern equipment that are useful in work environment. For this universities need to know the change in technology that is obvious with the help of three era model. To meet with the current changes SIS Strategy is useful if employed by the universities. This will help them to evaluate the worth and usability of different technologies and they can better access which ICT course is required by different companies. This is the leadership report that concludes which course is in and what is the latest technology comes in the industry, its uses, advantages and disadvantages.
Periodical Evolution of Technology (Three Era Model)
Past records clearly exhibited that there was no relationship between technology and corporate strategy. Information systems were only taken for granted to process data and the regulation of routine work with consistency. With the development in technology and inception in the corporate field, there rose a concern for making the information technology the part of organizational strategy. Three era model presented by John Ward, et. al. (1990) is a clear depiction of information systems used at different levels in the organization. These three eras show the time to time development of different technological stages and how they become the core part of organizational strategy. This model tells us that information technology is the most important part of any organization for its success and must be taught in universities to train the modern generation with specific skills. It is, therefore, necessary that universities update their courses according to the change technological standards as they play significant role in the development of organization when strategically harmonize with broad strategy.
Now, if we go through the three era model, it tells us that the current age has seen a revolutionary development and the latest courses are C++, MS Access 2007, Matlab Advance, LaTeX Advanced, PHP en MySQL and C++ Advanced.
Modern Organization Structure (Leavitt Diamond)
Harold J. Leavitt (1965) introduced an organizational framework that helps in analyzing the structure of an organization. Organization has four segmented bodies as people, structure, tasks, and technology. Each of these elements interacted independently with each other and in total Leavitt propose model. This helps the managers and researchers to manage the organization effectively. This model illustrates the interrelation and mutual adjustment of individual items with the change. For instance, if technology changes, then other components of the organization will adjust to accommodate the change
All the four elements make a diamond and the change or modification in one corner must be complemented by modifying the other corners as well. Smith et al. (1992) relates this to the change in task that will affect the technology, people and structure.
SIS is a strategy helping companies change or reform their business strategy or structure. (Hemmatfar & Salehi & Bayat 2010, p. 158).
The functions of SIS is varies due to the different need from companies prospective. By the strategy of differentiation from competitors, organization can gain competitive advantage through its contributions such as low cost, quality or speed to organization’s objectives and goals so as to achieve the profit maximization and take position or market shares in the fierce existing marketplace.
Michael Porter Strategy:
Reviewing the past developments in information technology and organizational development we have found Michael Porter Strategy as the best strategy that could better help the universities to introduce relevant and up-to-date courses. Now, we know very well that Information Age has imprinted its foot nearly all the organization’s different departments. We have also comprehensive knowledge how fast technology is changing and utilizing the old same technology may causes hindrance in your success struggle. To become aware of the latest technology and ability to find the relevant skilled labor is only possible if universities offer relevant and up-to-date ICT courses. This is also beneficial for the growth of educational institute as their survival lies in offering fresh courses.
Solving the issue of raising the standard of an International University, Porter’s five forces model is appropriate to do a detailed analysis of institute’s environment and the reason for popularity. The five forces comprises of the risk factor as;
- Emergent competitors (universities),
- Threat from strong substitute (in-house training),
- Choices for students (customer’s bargaining power),
- Suppliers bargaining power (Less numbers of faculty), and
- Degree of competition among different opponents (Porter 1985).
Here, environment play major role in scanning external threats as well as opportunities, judges institute’s original worth, and distinguishes elements that are the reasons of its promotion and / or demoting institute’s value (Hax & Majluf 1996, p.27). Organization’s right choice of strategy can transform the affect of these forces to benefits.
If we use this strategy in the perspective of introducing ICT course in the university, what impact would be seen? ICT courses are the latest trend so the chances are bright if C++, MS Access 2007, Matlab Advance, LaTeX Advanced, PHP en MySQL and C++ Advanced will be introduced with the provision of new computers and infrastructure and latest software. For this, they will also hire the skilled lecturers.
A Critical Point (Strategic Paradox)
Stressing on this point that strategy must be fool proof and should meet the coming challenges with the passage of time. However, bad-side may still happened even company setting with a prefect strategy. In Raynor’s book (2007, p. 5-21), he uses Sony’s Betamax VCR as a case. Sony made a correct business plan, build a successful strategy, identified market segment etc, but still fail in the end. Raynor (2007) conclude the reason that Sony’s failure not consequence by bad strategy, in fact, but of their strategy over-prefect. Once the key uncertainties broke the strategy, company will sharply become a victim of Strategic Paradox. Strategies effects the greatest possibility of success also have the greatest possibility of failure (Olson 2007), therefore it require firms with a new way of thinking about their business strategies when they facing this dilemma.
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