Calamities are unavoidable, the overwhelming population growth and geographical changes have rooted many disasters. Areas that are more exposed to any disasters are in continuous observation by the concerned authorities. New researches and modern science has made it possible to create awareness among the people, of the possible danger they are exposed to. But the hectic lifestyle, has made the mankind least bothered for the misshapes until it actually happens.
Advancement in technologies, changes in geographic scenarios and political differences, has made it mandatory for the deployment of an enhanced emergency management system. The evolving threats, the realities of global climate change, and our changing social, economic, and political environment demand new and innovative approaches and leadership (Haddow, et al. 2011). It is very common, when disasters happen more lives are lost due to late or ill managed rescue operations.
In case of any disaster, besides the Government controlled rescue workers, many private or NGOs (Non Government Organization) get involved in the rescue operation. Every individual rescue team operates on their own independent network of communication system (Turoff. M, 2007). This slows the deliverance of refuge to the victims creating complications in the entire operation. Emphasizes should be given on coordination among all the individual rescue teams that is monitored and controlled by a single leader.
Enhancement in the demands of mankind, have persuaded the need of technological advancement. More advance technologies are launched in almost, every quarter of the day. Any type of emergency management present special type of requirements for the people involved in it (Turoff. M, 2007). Unfortunately less consideration is laid on the safety and security measures. Rapid changes in geographical conditions, political matters, human error, etc, have given rise to many unfortunate incidents.
With the accelerated increase in world population, there’s an extreme demand of an advance Emergency Management System. Effective emergency management requires the formulation of a new structure, a new sociotechnological system capable of coping with the situation at hand (Xiong et al. 2012). An effective emergency management system is supported by modern technology tools. With the aid of these tools, graph of losses in any disaster scenario has declined utilizing these tools. However there are certain restrictions for these tools. Here we are talking about appropriate utilization and expert handling of computers and other devices in the entire rescue operation. In an event of natural calamity, though much advancement in emergency systems, mismanagement and lack of communication, may cause much losses.
Emergency management rests on three pillars: a knowledge of history, an understanding of human nature expressed in the social sciences, and specialized technical expertise in response mechanisms (Canton, 2007). The past events have highlighted, many factors that need improvement or modification, in managing an emergency operation. Every emergency situation has its own nature, behavior of the people, level of disaster, availability of resources and deputing the rescue workers to the right position, is a job of a very competent person.
Preparedness encompasses those actions taken to limit the impact of natural phenomena by structuring response and establishing a mechanism for effecting a quick and orderly reaction (Sundar, 2007). During a disaster emergency situations, many government and private teams gets involve in the rescue work. It has been observed, during such operations, such teams lacks coordination among themselves, and as a result the rescue command centre remains unable to deliver directives secondly without getting detailed status of the disaster, the command centre becomes dormant. Need for an effective system that makes the rescue operations more reliable and effective, has become mandatory
In recent years the technology trend within information technology has made it possible to move towards service oriented architectures and distributed computing (Luo, 2010). The past disastrous events have compelled the authorities to consider, induction of computer technologies into emergency management tactics. A single laptop works as a base station with multiple jobs. The success of the entire rescue operation is dependent on five factors;
- Early warning.
- Teams approaching the affected area in time.
- Diagnosing the exact level of tragedy.
- Aligning the rescue workers.
- Developing a well coordination.
Societies are busy in research works for minimizing the disaster’s affects, being it a major concern. Early warning system empowers the rescue operates in implementing an impressive rescue operation.
Emergency Management requires coordination of a wide range of organizations and activities, public and private (Wamsley, 1993). The operation command centre is to be well informed of the current status of the affected area as well as the actual positions of the workers.
To make communication more effective, Process Management System is being used in emergency operations. Every individual is equipped with a wireless or cellular phone, thus they have the capability to transfer the current info to the leader. Utilizing PMS the same info is gathered in a laptop or a PC, knowing the current level and the teams position, leader issues further action directives. Thus making the operation a success.
Those individuals who are involved in carrying out the command, control and other analysis process in situations of emergencies might have to work intensely for up to 14 – 24 hour shifts (Turoff. M, 2007).
More emphasizes are being given on computing the emergency management systems. Different societies have different values but in an event of calamity their course of action is common i.e., rapid action and saving the souls. Computers, no doubt accelerates the entire operation, it’s the main hub linking every actions. But still it is dependent on the fast data is provided to it.
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